How Sam Spade Came to Be Hard-Boiled, Part 2

Hi!  K.B. Owen here again, with the rest of the story behind The Maltese Falcon.  If you missed Part 1, click here.  Thanks for joining me today!

Samuel Dashiell Hammett:  1894-1961

Hammett’s life was more important to his work than is usual with an author.  Hammett was the first detective (a Pinkerton) to write detective novels, and is considered one of the best practitioners of the hard-boiled detective genre.  His life was varied and controversial.  He was friends with Faulkner, Fitzgerald, and West, and was Lillian Hellman’s lover.

image of Dashiell Hammett

Samuel Dashiell Hammett

His middle name came from the French side of his mother’s family the “DeChiells,” who had been famous in France for their bravery in battle, but his upbringing was humble.  Hammett was born on a run-down farm in Maryland to a struggling Irish middle-class family.

He loved to read anything and everything, and would do so late into the night.  However, he had to quit school at 15 to help support the family when his father became ill.  He hated his jobs, which were mostly in the railroad and industrial fields, and never held one for any length of time.

He became a Pinkerton operative when he was 21, and liked it.  The Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency was the largest private law enforcement agency in the U.S., founded in 1850 by Allan Pinkerton, a former Chicago policeman.  He invented the trademark of his business – the unblinking eye – and its motto, “We never sleep,” which led to the shortened tag of “private eye.”

The Pinkertons filled a gap between the federal government’s small Secret Service and the local police forces.  As the nation grew more complex, the gaps grew:  the Pinkertons were called upon to prevent assassinations and to solve difficult cases, especially those crossing several local jurisdictions.   These are the kind of tasks the FBI performs today, but the FBI (founded1908) of the ‘20s didn’t really get going in terms of its mission, organization, and jurisdictional authority, until it was re-organized under J. Edgar Hoover in 1934.

Pinkerton logoThe Pinkertons were also hired by big businesses to break up the formation of unions – with varying degrees of success, as those of you familiar with the Homestead Strike of 1892 know. The Pinkertons were highly disciplined.  They were on 24-hr call, were required to keep meticulous reports, and had to be able to successfully watch a house for days at a time without being detected.  Their work took them all over the country:  Hammett went to Idaho, Utah, Montana, and San Francisco for assignments.

Hammett joined the Army during WWI, but became disabled with tuberculosis and was discharged.  For the rest of his life, he would be plagued with respiratory problems.  He also smoked and drank a lot, which of course didn’t help.  He worked off and on as a Pinkerton for a number of years.

During one of his rehabilitations at a hospital, he started dating one of the nurses and got her pregnant. He married her, moved to San Francisco, and eventually they had two children, but then later divorced.

After another stint as a Pinkerton in San Francisco, Hammett got sick again, and they couldn’t get by on his disability pension.

At this point he was too ill to do the physically demanding detective work, so he began writing detective stories, and then novels.  The Maltese Falcon was his most successful, and the one for which he’s best known.  His Pinkerton experiences gave him a unique inside view of his detective creation.  Hammett, in one edition of the novel, describes Spade as his ideal of the hard-boiled detective:

He is what most of the private detectives I worked with would like to have been and what quite a few of them in their cockier moments thought they approached.  For your private detective does not want to be an erudite solver of riddles in the Sherlock Holmes manner; he wants to be a hard and shifty fellow, able to take care of himself in any situation, able to get the best of anybody he comes in contact with, whether criminal, innocent bystander or client.

Hammett also wrote the Nick and Nora Charles detective series for the screen: The Thin Man (1934) and After the Thin Man (1936).

Even with all the money he was making at the time, he couldn’t hang onto it. His drinking problem became serious and he was hospitalized at age 42.

Hammett also became involved in Communist party activities, and was named chairman of the Committee on Election Rights, a group allied with the Communist Party.

Somehow, he managed to join the Army again in 1942 (at age 48, with TB!).  The Army was aware of his communist affiliations and kept a close eye on him.

He was sent to jail in 1951 for refusing to testify about the Civil Rights Congress bail fund (which had helped put up bail for people arrested for Communist activities, who then turned right around and jumped bail). Hammett was also interrogated by the McCarthy Committee in 1953.

He died of lung cancer in 1961.  As a veteran of two wars, he was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Publication and response to The Maltese Falcon:

The story was first serialized in Black Mask Magazine the year before it was published as a novel in 1930.

The third film version of The Maltese Falcon in 1941 (directed by John Huston, with the fabulous cast of Humphrey Bogart, Mary Astor, Sidney Greenstreet, and Peter Lorre) became the definitive version of the novel.

Bogart and Astor--confrontation scene

Humphrey Bogart and Mary Astor








Greenstreet and Lorre

Sidney Greenstreet, and Peter Lorre









Faulkner, Fitzgerald, and Hemingway praised Hammett’s story.  When Gertrude Stein came back to the U.S., Hammett was the writer she wanted to meet.  Eleanor Roosevelt loved the book, and wouldn’t let it be pulled from the shelves when the anti-communist movement blackballed Hammett.

Here’s one of my favorite quotes about The Maltese Falcon, and it was written by fellow hard-boiled mystery writer Raymond Chandler:

[Hammett] took murder out of the Venetian vase and dropped it into the alley; it doesn’t have to stay there forever, but it looked like a good idea to get as far as possible from Emily Post’s idea of how a well-bred debutante gnaws a chicken-wing.

Have you read The Maltese Falcon?  Do you enjoy the hard-boiled detective genre?  I’d love to hear from you!

Until next time,

Posted by Kathy Owen (aka K.B. Owen). Kathy is a recovering former English professor with a PhD in 19th century British literature, and the author of Dangerous and Unseemly, A Concordia Wells mystery. She is currently raising three boys and working on Books 2 and 3 in the Concordia Wells mystery series.

We blog here at misterio press once (sometimes twice) a week,  usually on Tuesdays. Sometimes we talk about serious topics, and sometimes we just have some fun.

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  • Reply
    How Sam Spade Came to Be Hard-Boiled, part 2
    October 8, 2013 at 7:18 am

    […] Here’s the link: How Sam Spade Came To Be Hard-Boiled, part 2 […]

  • Reply
    Margot Kinberg
    October 8, 2013 at 5:50 pm

    Kathy – What fascinating stuff on Hammett! Same Spade is definitely an iconic character and it’s so interesting to learn how Hammett’s own life and experiences inspired him. I also like the way you’ve woven in the history of the era here too. Interesting!!

    • Reply
      K.B. Owen
      October 9, 2013 at 11:20 am

      Margot, thanks so much! Glad you enjoyed it. 😀

  • Reply
    Sharla Rae
    October 8, 2013 at 10:27 pm

    Wow, so interesting. I really loved this info. Thanks for all your hard work.

    • Reply
      K.B. Owen
      October 9, 2013 at 11:20 am

      You bet, Sharla Rae! Thanks for stopping by!

  • Reply
    Kassandra Lamb
    October 9, 2013 at 9:37 am

    Great post, Kathy! I find the history of things (the story behind the story) so fascinating. I never knew that ‘private eye’ came from the Pinkerton logo. I always thought it came from an abbreviation of private investigator.

    • Reply
      K.B. Owen
      October 9, 2013 at 11:21 am

      I know what you mean, Kassandra – I love those little tidbits, too! 😀

  • Reply
    October 9, 2013 at 5:11 pm

    Who in their right mind would want to join the Army at age 48? Good gracious, I’m 49 and I barely have the energy to get out of bed in the morning. Good for him, but, yikes. I’m not sure I feel safe if there’s many more of those kinds of recruits out there today.

    Thanks, as always, for a wonderful and educational post.

    Patricia Rickrode
    w/a Jansen Schmidt

    • Reply
      K.B. Owen
      October 10, 2013 at 7:31 am

      It’s so fun to see what folks latch on to in Hammett’s biography. The army must have been plenty desperate to hire an aging, self-professed Commie with health problems! So nice to see you here, Patricia. 🙂

  • Reply
    Perry Block (@PerryBlock)
    October 10, 2013 at 1:20 am

    By gad, sir, I like a piece like this!

    • Reply
      K.B. Owen
      October 10, 2013 at 7:25 am

      LOL, Perry, you’d make a fantastic Gutman…and thanks! 😀

  • Reply
    Karen McFarland
    October 12, 2013 at 4:27 pm

    Kathy, I really dig how much you love historical history. It really comes across in your writing.
    I’ve never read the Maltese Falcon, but I did see the movie many years ago. I didn’t know that Hammet wrote The Thin Man. My father really like that movie. Interesting information on the Pinkerton detective agency. I had heard of them, but didn’t know the background. I just feel so smart now that I’ve read these last two post. 🙂

    • Reply
      K.B. Owen
      October 13, 2013 at 6:59 pm

      Thanks, Karen – it was a lot of time researching and writing, but I loved the subject. I appreciate you stopping by!

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